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adshelp[at]cfa.harvard.edu The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A(plate) What causes the loss of electrons in the radiation belt?What causes the loss of electrons in the radiation belt?Nonadiabatic outward radial transport, which naturally results in loss of radiation belt electrons due to deceleration (if nothing else), can be enabled by any process that invalidates the third adiabatic invariant, provided that there is a negative gradient in the electron radial distribution.Radial Diffusion - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

diffusion coefficient in the stronger magnetic field of CIRs radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l 30 MeV Jovian electrons from 1978 to 1984 have been made at 1 AU by the University of Chicago electron spectrometer onboard the radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l

by diffusion due to violation of the third adiabatic invariant. It is predominantly a steady state feature, or macrosignature, for which approximate solutions of the diffusion equation lead to an estimate of the radial diffusion coefficient, Du 2X108 at L = 5. The model suggests a strong L (plate) 1~ - DTIC(steel) parameters, except the diffusion coefficients, compared well with the literature values of the bromide species solvated in acetonitrile. The ionic properties of the molten salt system were shown to effect the diffusion coefficients of the bromide species, and are approximately L'u orders of magnitude smaller in the melt than in acetonitrile.

PPPL-3244 - Preprint March 1997, UC-420 A Study of MHD Stabilization in Tokamaks with Lower Hybrid Waves S. Bernabei, A. Cardinali*, G. Giruzzi# and K. McGuire Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P. 0.Box 451, Princeton ,New Jersey 08543 *Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. E. Frascuti, Italy #Rrsociation Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, Centre d'Etudes de Cadarmhe, Frame(plate) AD/A-003 751 GEOMAGNETICALLY TRAPPED (steel) inner-belt protons. Inclusion of radial-diffusion and geomagnetic-secular effects has brought the theory of the inner proton belt into reasonable agreement with observation. At very low L values (L < 1. 2) atmospheric collisions have been found to facilitate the radial transport of 40-keV protons and 2-MeV electrons.

@article{osti_22263892, title = {Analysis of double stub tuner control stability in a many element phased array antenna with strong cross-coupling}, author = {Wallace, G. M. and Fitzgerald, E. and Johnson, D. K. and Kanojia, A. D. and Koert, P. and Lin, Y. and Murray, R. and Shiraiwa, S. and Terry, D. R. and Wukitch, S. J. and Hillairet, J.}, abstractNote = {Active stub tuning with a fast radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(plate) Author M. Walt, L.L. NewkirkPublish Year 1968PUBLICATIONS - ResearchGate(steel) produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron ux at 0.976MeVeven though the model does not include the effects of local internal radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l

Radial Diffusion Coefficient for Electrons at 1.76 < L < 5. radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l Radial diffusion by nonconservation of the third adiabatic invariant of particle motion is assumed in analyzing experiments in which radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(plate) Cited by 75Publish Year 1968Author L. L. Newkirk, M. WaltRadial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1.76 < L < 5 radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(steel) Values deduced for the diffusion coefficient vary from 1.3 × 10 5 R E ²/day at L = 1.76 to 0.10 R E ²/day at L = 5. In the interval 2.6 < L < 5, the coefficient varies as L 10±1. Assuming a constant electron source of arbitrary magnitude at L = 6 and the above diffusion coefficients, the equatorial equilibrium distribution is calculated for electrons with energies above 1.6 Mev. The calculation yields an outer

2.76×(E/Z)aH 5 kpc 2/Myr, a = 0.54 in the plain diffusion model, where E is in TeV and H = 5H 5 kpc. It is assumed that the diffusion does not change its character up to 105 TeV. The accepted local SN rate in the galactic disk is sn = 50 kpc-2Myr-1, and each SNR instantly inject S(E) ~ (plate) Diffusion of equatorial particles in the outer radiation radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(steel) The radial diffusion coefficient D = (½) (L)²/time is calculated as a function of the McIlwain parameter L and in terms of the spectral density of fluctuations in the standoff distance of the magnetosphere boundary. Because the unperturbed drift trajectories are asymmetric, driftresonant diffusion of particles is produced by spectral radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l

level, because only these electrons can change their en-ergy under influence of external fields. There are many questions how from measurement of the Hall effect of metals we can get the total density of free electrons, how find the density . n. eff. of randomly moving electrons, their diffusion coefficient . D. and drift mobility drift, the radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(plate) Fast Electrons Behavior in Presence of External Radial radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(steel) The third term of Eq. is for loss of runaway electrons. Here \( \tau_{RE} \propto a^{2} /D_{r} \) is the confinement time of runaway electrons. a is the minor radius and D r is the radial diffusion coefficient. Radial diffusion coefficient is related to different factors such as magnetic fluctuation square and electrostatic fluctuations square.

By correlating electron current fluctuations with radial magnetic fluctuations the transported flux of electrons is found to be negligible outside r/a~0.9, but rises the level of the expected total particle losses inside r/a~0.85. A comparison of the measured diffusion coefficient is made with the ausilinear stochastic diffusion coefficient.(plate) Generation of suprathermal electrons during sawtooth radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(steel) Feb 13, 2007The broadening of the suprathermal density profile during the crash (3040 µs) and the decay of the non-thermal population after the crash (~400 µs) give similar numbers for the effective radial diffusion coefficient, . Radial diffusion dominates over slowing down, as the latter would give much longer characteristic relaxation times (12 ms).

Sep 01, 1995Due to conservation of the first invariant, injection and radial diffusion increase the electron energy as L-If the relativistic electrons were injected into the magnetosphere from near geostationary L, their observation at L = 1.5 with E > 80 MeV would imply that their initial energy at L = 6.6 was about 11 MeV.(plate) Inner zone and slot electron radial diffusion revisited radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(steel) In their model, the L 1 shielding appears as a factor of (L/8.547) 2 in the diffusion coefficient. So, for example, at L = 2, the D LL would be ~5% of its value in the nominal Schulz model. Such a disagreement is larger than what we see in Figure 4, and so perhaps shielding does not apply at quiet times.

Loss of Relativistic Electrons in the Radiation Belts Dropouts occur when the magnetosphere is compressed and occurs at low energy. The low energy dropouts cannot be explained by EMIC wave scattering. Radial diffusion simulations show that the outward radial diffusion can propagate losses down to low L-shells.(plate) Motion and diffusion of energetic particles in the outer radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(steel) Jul 01, 1972Motion and diffusion of energetic particles in the outer zone. Author links open overlay panel J.Cl. Kosik. Show more

If radial diffusion is driven by ionospheric winds, as was suggested by Brice and McDonough (1973), it is found that the theoretical solution which best fits the data requires that the radial diffusion coefficient equals 3 x 10 to the -9th L-cubed/s and the lifetime against local losses is approximately a (plate) Neoclassical and anomalous radial diffusion of trapped radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(steel) Radial diffusion inward from large L increases apparent lifetime at low L . Newkirk and Walt estimated D. LL (at constant µ) needed to produce apparent lifetime plot in Imhof et al. Decreases with L! Roederer et al [1973] showed that neoclassical diffusion produces a D. LL (at constant energy) of the order estimated by Newkirk and Walt D. LL radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l

John T. Avrett II, 2nd Lt, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/12-01 radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l Ln Diffusion length for electrons Iph Photogenerated current Lp Diffusion length for holes Itot Total solar cell current D0 Diffusion coefficient n Index of refraction Resistivity A Solar cell surface area(plate) People also askHow does radial diffusion affect the ring current?How does radial diffusion affect the ring current?Radial diffusion played a secondary role, injecting particles with higher energies (80 keV) deep into the magnetosphere (L < 4) and increasing the total ring current energy by about 15% near minimum Dst. The ring current became symmetric only during the storm recovery phase.Radial Diffusion - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

collisions. The measured diffusion coefficients in magnetic fields of 700 to 800 Oe are in accordance with those derived on the basis of the classical theory of binary Coulomb collisions. In the range of magnetic fields from 1000 to 5000 Oe a considerable deviation from the theory is observed, the diffusion coefficient being proportional to 1/H.(plate) Radial Diffusion - an overview ScienceDirect Topics(steel) Oct 08, 2013L.I. Dorman, in COSPAR Colloquia Series, 2001 ABSTRACT. On the basis of neutron monitor data as well as solar activity data for four solar cycles 19-22 the hysteresis phenomenon is investigated by taking into account convection-diffusion and drifts, and estimated the dimension of modulation region, radial diffusion coefficient, expected cosmic ray intensity in the interstellar

151 invariants, DLL is the cross-L diffusion coefficient, L is the time scale for particle losses. 152 In this study we adopt a data-derived empirical relationship for the rate of radial 153 diffusion due to magnetic fluctuations [Brautigam and Albert, 2000] DM (Kp, L) 10(0.506 Kp 9.325 ) L10 , Kp 1

The diffusion rates of the electrons under the effect of the fluctuating fields are calculated numerically through the test-particle simulation as a function of the radial coordinate <i>L</i> in a dipolar magnetosphere; these calculations are then compared to the symmetric, electromagnetic radial diffusion coefficients for radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(plate) Simulating radial diffusion of energetic (MeV) electrons radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(steel) The diffusion rates of the electrons under the effect of the fluctuating fields are calculated numerically through the test-particle simulation as a function of the radial coordinate <i>L</i> in a dipolar magnetosphere; these calculations are then compared to the symmetric, electromagnetic radial diffusion coefficients for radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l

17. Electric field power spectrum (left panel) during a 1-hour interval near geosynchronous altitude 23 18. Bounce-averaged pitch angle diffusion coefficients as functions of equatorial pitch angle O 24 19. Bounce-averaged quasilinear diffusion coefficients for electrons at L=4.5 due to storm-time whistler mode chorus. 25

Aug 20, 2012ULF Wave Radial Diffusion New set of ULF wave-derived electric and magnetic radial diffusion coefficients (Ozeke et al., JGR, 2012). Statistics based on 20 years of CARISMA data. Ozeke et al. D-LL characterised by Vsw and Kp can be applied to RBSP events and compared to observations. Test of diffusion theory.(plate) The radial diffusion of trapped particles induced by radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(steel) Kavanagh, L. D. 1968, An Empirical Evaluation of Radial Diffusion Coefficients for Electrons of 50100 keV from L = 4 to L = 7, J. Geophys. Res. 73 , 2959. ADS Google Scholar

1114 0 1.8 1.8 1.8 0 1151 0 1.7 1.5-11 1.5 0 1373 0 0.3 0.4 1.5 0 Continuum cross section. z Averaged cross section over 9.26-A channel. et al. (1984) found that the vertical eddy diffusion coeffi- cient increased with height as [N2] -°5, up to a homopause(plate) Two-temperature chemically non-equilibrium modelling of radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(steel) Mar 31, 2004where is the mobility of Ar ions and e that of the electrons. Therefore, the ambipolar diffusion coefficient may be underestimated. The first-order approximation of the ChapmanEnskog method is considered to be approximately sufficient for thermal plasmas at

[1] Waves in the ultra-low-frequency (ULF) band have frequencies which can be drift resonant with electrons in the outer radiation belt, suggesting the potential for strong interactions and enhanced radial diffusion. Previous radial diffusion coefficient models such as those presented by Brautigam and Albert (2000) have typically used semiempirical(plate) United States Naval Postgraduate School(steel) LT(jg) W. M. Ober II) C-l APPENDIX D Molecular-Ion Electrogasdynamic Flow Channel radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l D Diffusion coefficient for electrons radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l electrons d - Cylinder diameter E - Electric field E Electric field in the axial direction E - Electric field in the radial direction K - Breakdown field E - Space charge field e « Charge on an electron

Sep 28, 2016Observations of electron flux at L*=3.9 as a function of equatorial pitch angle and day by MagEIS and REPT for (e) 1.02 and (f) 4.20 MeV electrons. The radial (plate)Radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1.76 < L < 5 radial diffusion coefficient for electrons at 1 76 lt; l(steel) Values deduced for the diffusion coefficient vary from 1.3 × 10 5 RE ²/day at L = 1.76 to 0.10 RE ²/day at L = 5. In the interval 2.6 < L < 5, the coefficient varies as L10±1.